Role of angiotensin II and oxidative stress in renal inflammation by hypernatremia: Benefits of atrial natriuretic peptide, losartan, and tempol.
1Department of Pathophysiology, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires , Argentina.
The body regulates plasma sodium levels within a small physiologic range, despite large variations in daily sodium and water intake. It is known that sodium transport in the kidneys plays an important role in hypoxia, being the major determinant of renal oxygen consumption. Tubular epithelial cell hypoxia is an important contributor to the development of renal inflammation, and the damage may progress to structural injury, ending in acute renal failure. In this review, we will summarize the renal inflammatory effects of high acute plasma sodium (acute hypernatremia), and the molecular mechanisms involved. We will also discuss recent findings related to the role of oxidative stress and angiotensin II (Ang II) in the pathogenesis of renal injury. We will comment on the effects of agents used to prevent or attenuate the inflammatory response, such as the atrial natriuretic peptide, the superoxide dismutase mimetic – tempol, and losartan.