Neuroprotective effects of TEMPOL in central and peripheral nervous system models of Parkinson’s disease.
Liang Q¹, Smith AD, Pan S, Tyurin VA, Kagan VE, Hastings TG, Schor NF.
¹Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) is a stable nitroxyl antioxidant. Previous studies have suggested that TEMPOL is protective in acute disorders thought to involve reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ischemic stroke and cardiac reperfusion injury. Oxidized TEMPOL can be recycled to its redox-active reducing form by co-administration with polynitroxylated albumin, making it a candidate as a pharmacological “reservoir” for reducing potential of use in chronic disorders involving ROS. The present studies examine the efficacy of TEMPOL in cell culture and animal models of the central and peripheral dysfunction associated with Parkinson’s disease, a disorder in the pathogenesis of which ROS generated from dopamine have been implicated. Antioxidants have been proposed as both preventive and symptomatic therapy for Parkinson’s disease. TEMPOL protects MN9D dopaminergic mesencephalic cells in culture from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis. Translocation of the p65 component of NF-kappaB to the nucleus accompanies protection by TEMPOL. In vivo, intraperitoneal TEMPOL protects mice from intrastriatal 6-OHDA-induced cell and dopamine metabolite loss in the striatum. TEMPOL also protects mice against the 6-OHDA-induced rotational behavior elicited by intrastriatal administration of d-amphetamine. In addition, TEMPOL protects mice from the ptosis, activity level decrement, and mortality induced by intraperitoneal administration of 6-OHDA, a model of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Adjunctive use of polynitroxylated albumin enhances the in vitro and in vivo effects of TEMPOL.